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文章原始标题:Why has China developed faster and more consistently than Brazil, despite both countries being huge?


G Klinkerfuss , Full time cinephile.
I would attribute China’s success to the fact that they have outlawed imperialism. Chinese resources must serve their people and their country. I think the Chinese would agree with me here: since they took power, they have in effect made it difficult for rich countries to take advantage of China. There is still a long way to go in bringing development from the coast to the vast countryside and completely eliminating poverty. It’s also important to bear in mind that Brazil is still more developed and has a higher GDP per capita than China. But China will probably accomplish this because they have a political class that intends to undo their period of humiliation and subservience. As a Brazilian, I want China to succeed.

G Klinkerfuss 全职电影爱好者
我认为中国的成功是因为他们宣布帝国主义是不合法的。中国的资源必须服务于他们的人民和国家。我认为中国会同意我的观点的:自从他们掌权以来,他们实际上让富裕的国家很难占中国的便宜,但要实现沿海地区的发展扩大到广大农村,彻底消除贫困,还有很长的路要走。同样重要的是要记住,巴西仍然比中国更加发达,人均 GDP 也比中国高。但中国可能会实现这一目标,因为他们的政治阶层打算消除他们屈辱和卑躬屈膝的时期。作为一个巴西人,我希望中国能够成功。

China’s political system seems to be more robust than ours when it comes to strengthening the country and determining a common future for their population. Pointing to a path and saying here, this is development, this is the future. And they will achieve that. Brazil’s on the other hand assures we’re still Washington’s backyard, but we do have more personal freedom and the average Brazilian earns more than the average Chinese. China and Brazil must be friends. Our goals are ultimately the same.

(接上)在加强国家实力和决定人民共同未来的问题上,中国的政治制度似乎比我们的更有活力。 他们会指着一条路说,这就是发展,这就是未来,他们会实现这一目标。但另一方面,巴西仍然一直是华盛顿的后院,但我们确实有更多的个人自由,巴西人的平均收入也高于中国人的平均收入。中国和巴西一定是朋友,我们的最终目标是一致的。

In 2019, truck drivers organized a national strike. The right to strike is enshrined in the Constitution.
Brazil has the biggest gay pride parade in the world and between 3 - 5 million people attend each year. Same-sex couple can marry and adopt children. The public health system provides free sex reassignment surgery.
Sustainable agriculture is supported by the government, though there has been a recent decline. This has been going on since 2010 and it mostly affects small and middle-sized farms.
The Itaipú hydroelectric dam is massive and it produces clean, renewable energy. It used to be the biggest in the world until China built the Three Gorges Dam.

巴西有世界上最大的同性恋游行,每年有300万到500万人参加。同性伴侣可以结婚并收养孩子。 公共卫生系统提供免费的变性手术。
可持续农业得到了政府的支持,尽管最近有所下降。 这种情况自2010年以来一直在发生,主要影响到中小型农场。

Johnny Jonathan , studied Economics at Federal University of Bahia
Ask if before why. This is simple not true at all.
Between 1930 and 1970, Brazil growth more than any other country[1]. Brazil was the China of this time. No wonder we gained the slogan “the country of the future”[2] .
But after the stagflation of 1970 and the rise of the Oil prices, Brazil had a lot of macro economical problems, which mainly leaded to a hyperinflation between 80~90 (in 94 it was mostly solved) and a big fiscal problem between 2010 and 2015 that we don’t know if we will be able to solve this second one yet.

Johnny Jonathan 巴伊亚联邦大学经济学专业

Jack Lee , works at China
As far as I know, this can only be done in China, because most of the countries in the world adopted democratic structure suggested by developed Western world. Democracy sounds attracting, but it inherently unable to handle bad trends like corruption. The Western populated the seeds of democracy around the world, and the soil found it may cause “cancers.” One of the “cancer” is systematic corruption. You may find it in may countries in the world.
The other is abuse of drugs. This “cancer” is growing fast, even in the homeland of democracy.
The third is low efficiency to develop. Develop slowly has been proved to be an false proposition. China tried, but was beaten by guns and cannons from British as a representative. Unfortunately, democracy brings low efficiency, which will drag their industry to fail in severe global competition. No top company in the world will use democracy to manage their business. Why? Some big companies are as big and complex as small countries!
The fourth is hard to execute long term target. Long term target is important to save resources and energy. Democracy makes any long term target easy to fail or shrink. The US is good at keeping long term target, but Trump broken it.
So, my conclusion is the secrete lies in China’s fast development is her unique political structure and social arrangement. Don’t predefine communism as bad or evil, you just have not experience its success.

Jack Lee ,在中国工作
第三是发展效率低下。发展缓慢已被证明是一个错误的命题。中国试过了,但是被英国人的坚船利炮打败了。不幸的是,西方民主带来了低效率,这将使他们的产业在激烈的全球竞争中挫败。世界上没有一家顶级公司会用民主来管理他们的业务。为什么? 因为有些大公司和国家一样,又大又复杂!

Derek Gould , Studied at HKU and also taught there.
There is an allegedly Chinese saying “Better to light a candle than to curse the darkness” which probably describes the Chinese people’s get-up-and-go attitude best.
In other words, to overcome obstacles like corruption instead of being stalled by them.
I don’t know anything about Brazilian culture, but if it’s stereotypically laid-back (especially in the face of obstacles), that could explain why China is moving ahead and Brazil isn’t.

Derek Gould ,曾在香港大学学习及任教。
我对巴西文化一无所知,但如果它有一种典型的懒散的话(尤其是面对障碍时) ,那就可以解释为什么中国在前进,而巴西却没有。

Claire Wang , Know about China
The answer lies in trade and Consumption, which are essential factors for economic growth.China and Brazil now have very similar GDP per capita and HDI, but population size and a responsive government do matter.
Country comparison Brazil vs China 2019
Lifting millions out of poverty, China now also has a giant middle class population that is still rapidly growing. Despite being accused of many human right abuses, an averaged Chinese benefited far more from the country’s growth than averaged Brazilia...

Claire Wang 了解中国
答案在于贸易和消费,它们是经济增长的必要因素。中国和巴西现在的人均 GDP 和人类发展指数非常相似,但人口规模和负责任的政府确实很重要。

Mike Alvarez , Math, Physics,Software guy
China is a nuclear state and it can do whatever it wants in regards to domestic policy. Brazil doesn’t have that freedom, there are too many interests, the rich, the poor, the media, the politicians, the US who always keeps a watchful eye on Brazil so that it does not grow too powerful so as not to challenge its supremacy in South America. It would be unthinkable for the Brazilian government to execute corrupt government officlals, it would never happen and the US would overthrown its government one way or the other. Still, I believe there are other factors, China remains fairly homogeneous being 90% Han and they are very smart having an IQ of at least 105. Have you heard the term “math so complex only an Asian can do it”? There are too many racial problems in Brazil which promote underdevelopment. That’s it.

Mike Alvarez,数学,物理,软件专家
中国是一个有核国家,在国内政策上可以随心所欲。巴西没有这种自由,有太多的利益集团:富人、穷人、媒体、政客、美国。他们总是密切关注着巴西,这样巴西就不会变得太强大,以至于无法挑战其在南美的霸权地位。巴西政府对腐败政府官员的处理简直无力,关于处决这种事情永远不会发生,因为美国无论如何都会推翻它的政府。尽管如此,我相信还有其他因素:中国90% 的人口是汉族,他们非常聪明,智商至少在105以上。你有没有听说过“数学太复杂,只有亚洲人才能做到”?在巴西,有太多的种族问题了,导致发展不足。就是这样。

Pavel Shevchuk , B Sc from Higher School of Economics (2019)
There are possibly many sides to this story, I will only tell you one. China started from a very, very low base. In 1991 the GDP per person in Brazil was $3,000. In China it was mere $300. It is so much easier to grow when you start very poor - even very insignificant capital investments and slightly outdated technologies may yield spectacular productivity growth.

Pavel Shevchuk ,高等经济学院理学士(2019)

Emilio Vidal , Forensic Science Expert. at Venezuela (2002-present)
* China has 5000 years of OWN HISTORY.
* Brazil was invaded by the portuguese, who destroys their social order 500 hundred year ago, then, they are building a nation still.
Corruption? Well… happens all over.

Emilio Vidal 委内瑞拉司法科学专家(2002年至今)
* 中国有5000年的历史。
* 500年前,葡萄牙人入侵巴西,破坏了巴西的社会秩序,然后,他们现在仍在建设这个国家。
腐败? 嗯... 巴西到处都是。

Masao Miwa , Always interested, especially Asia
China chose its own economic policy of socialist capitalism. Brazil followed the American policy of democratic capitalism. China planned long term and stuck with it. Brazil followed the American plan of 4 years or sooner with elections to change directions.

Masao Miwa 总是对很多地方感兴趣,尤其是亚洲

Ion Vasile , Doctor and Engineer
China kept more of its shyte together. Brazil lacks somehow a national idea and is divided between centers of power, who also prey on the under-represented areas. From candomble, lebanese, recent european migrants you find many divisions there, and few of them, if none really loyal to Brazil or Latin America.

Ion Vasile ,博士及工程师

Jay Young , Korean
It all has to do with what you got and who your buyer is.
China has (Oh I don’t know, the entire manufacturing needs of the US) and the US as its customer.
Brazil has Brazillian wax and didn’t have the entire US population hooked on wax. But every American, every single one, littered their homes with Chinese goods.

Jay Young 、韩国人

Marco Fierro , former IT Manager / CIO
I think, above all the other significant reasons, is that in China, corrupts are subject to death penalty - in Brazil they became elected politicians for office … again and again.

Marco Fierro 、前IT经理 / 资讯科技总监

Shan Barani , former Auto Mechanic (1966-1976)
China is homogenous vs Brazil is 50% African American with all its pathologies

Shan Barani 、前汽车修理工(1966-1976)

Marcello Miller, Lawyer
It’s hard to see it happening.
Brazil’s age-sex pyramid is shrinking at the base and widening towards the top, looking more like an ogive than a pyramid. That means the population is aging, and adults rather than the young now account for the largest group.
The economy should be developing fast at this stage, faster than ever, while most of the population is economically active. This should be the time to make hay while the sun shines, as the saying goes, by taking advantage of the fact that a large chunk of the population is able to work.
The ‘while-the-sun-shines’ part is critical: the more the top of the age-sex pyramid widens, the larger the share of the population that’s in retirement. A large retired population is a huge drain on the economy — developed countries, most of whose age-sex pyramids are already there, have enough of a hard time funding their healthcare and pension systems.

Marcello Miller, 律师
在这个阶段,经济应该快速发展,比以往任何时候都要快,而大多数人口都在从事经济活动。 正如俗话所说,应该趁着“万事俱备”的时候,利用好大量拥有劳动力的人口。

So what has Brazil been doing to make hay while the sun shines? Saying ‘nothing’ would put it mildly. Essentially the country has wasted an entire decade of economic growth. Between 2010–2020, the economy will have posted near-zero growth.
Until the late 90’s, Brazil had a place in the world economy as an industrial powerhouse. Although the industrial sector is still strong, Brazil’s economy has experienced a certain measure of de-industrialization, mostly as result of Asian competition. The high growth between 2000 and 2012 was mainly led by commodities exports, which is no sound, sustainable way for such a big, complex country to grow.


Brazil has serious shortcomings in regulatory affairs, infrastructure and productivity, all three of which are obviously intertwined. And it has a tremendously pressing issue in its immense income inequality. Inequality tends to favor a left-leaning agenda, the implementation of which often impacts negatively on regulation and productivity.
In sum, although I don’t see Brazil’s economy sliding down too hard (it’s huge and complex and it tends to find ways to cushion itself), it’s hard to see it skyrocketing anytime soon.

(接上)巴西在监管事务、基础设施和生产力方面存在严重缺陷,而这三者显然相互交织在一起。 在巨大的收入不平等中,有一个非常紧迫的问题。不平等倾向于左倾议程,这些议程的实施往往会对监管和生产力产生负面影响。

Daniel Souza, lived in Brazil
Unfortunately we had several populist politicians that seem to believe that they can “end poverty” and “make the country developed” by just signing a document (na canetada). This series of policies that spam from very strict labor regulations, increasing minimum wage constantly, high taxation (only the government can solve the problems), and crippling bureaucracy has corroded Brazilian Industry Competitiveness and therefore we become more dependent on commodities instead of industrial goods…

Daniel Souza, 住在巴西
不幸的是,我们有几位民粹主义政客似乎相信,只要签署一份文件,他们就可以“消除贫困” ,“让国家发展”。严格的劳动法规、不断提高的最低工资标准、高税收(只有政府才能这个解决问题)以及严重的官僚主义等一系列政策,侵蚀了巴西的工业竞争力,因此我们更加依赖大宗商品而非工业产品。

This mismanagement has been going on for ages, politicians sign laws that in the very short-term are ”pro-people” but the reality is that no matter how high the taxes are it's impossible to sustain free health care, free education (from elementary all the way to university), have great pensions and so on, unless your economy is diversified and competitive in the world stage. Most of the problems stems from our constitution that guarantees a series of benefits without taking into consideration that the reality in Brazil is not the same as in an European country.

(接上)这种管理不善已经持续了很长时间,政客们签署的法律虽然在短期内是“亲民”的,但现实是,无论税收有多高,都不可能维持免费医疗,免费教育(从小学一直到大学) ,和巨大的养老金等等,除非你的经济是多样化的,在世界舞台上具有竞争力。大多数问题都源于我们的宪法,它保障了一系列的利益,却没有考虑到现实的巴西与欧洲国家的不同。

The reason why China looks more rich than Brazil is that they recognized that in the long-run capitalism (without the State trying to cripple it) is WAY more effective in guaranteeing a better quality life to it's population than just signing a document, infrastructure comes as a result of this process.
I'm not saying that only Ultra liberal economies succeed, but the model Brazil adopted is unsustainable…


Ruben Luz, works at Freelancing
The reason is simple, Chinese has pragmatic mindset as also a very nationalistic policy, where Mexico and Brasil tend to believe in paternalistic figures and be aligned to US Policies.
Isn't a wish of US Gov. And also those countries elites to their people and country develop in a way that workforce will have expensive sallaries, Life Quality would be top in the world, if that happens, who gonna be sold the American dream to?
Who Trump gonna blame for US problems? Who gonna dish wash earning low salaries at US?
Contrary to China, who see it's people as the greatest asset, and invest tons of money to make people educated, have access to good infra structure and opportunities.

Ruben Luz, 从事自由职业
特朗普会把美国的问题归咎于谁? 在美国谁想拿着低工资洗盘子呢?

Masao Miwa
China gave infrastructure a very high priority. It knew that infrastructure was key to economic growth. It placed infrastructure front and center in its long-range planning and it turns out they were right. From infrastructure success, poverty relief, education, and healthcare are tops on their list. All are integral to the overall growth of China and the direction China wants to achieve. The BRI is China’s infrastructure plan for the world. Xi is attempting to use China’s success to jump-start areas of poverty and slow growth…….Central Asia, Africa, and the Middle East are the prime beneficiaries of infrastructure as they are linked to developed areas of the world.

Masao Miwa
中国高度重视基础设施建设,它知道基础设施是经济增长的关键。中国将基础设施放在长期规划的前沿和中心,事实证明他们是正确的。从基础设施建设的成功来看,扶贫、教育和医疗是他们的首选。所有这些都是中国整体增长和中国希望实现的方向不可或缺的一部分。一带一路是中国面向全球的基础设施规划。中国领导人正试图依靠中国的成功,发展贫困和增长缓慢的地区... 中亚、非洲和中东是基础设施的主要受益者,因为它们与世界发达地区相连。

China also has a system in plain sight that most seem not able to see. China is a meritocracy and it is from the best of managers are chosen for the next level of responsibility, that is, all Chinese leaders are chosen for their success at showing success as they climb the ladder of responsibility. China is a meritocracy evolved from the days of the Imperial examination, not unlike the meritocracy you find in corporate America. Today’s version requires not only knowledge but skills at their performance in management and leadership. They also have to go to school to keep up with current government practices, governance, and law. They learn to be leaders.
All these political leaders try to march to the same tune so there is a more concerted effort to succeed in the direction they have chosen. Some call it a ‘command economy’ and the US wants China to abandon it. Fat chance!


Luana Brandão Takahashi, Programmer and Web Designer at Trinity Ltd. (2014-present)
Well, maybe I am exaggerating a little bit, but China is surely stronger than Brazil as far as the military is concerned. They also spend a lot more annually on their military sector than Brazil.
China is also economically and politically stronger than Brazil.
I’ve lived in China for 2 years and then moved back to Brazil. In general, I don’t see how the Brazilians could come close to China any time soon.

Luana Brandão Takahashi, 程序员和网页设计师(2014年至今)
我在中国生活了两年,然后搬回了巴西。 总的来说,我不认为巴西会很快接近中国。

The Chinese, despite everything people say about them, are working for the greater good. And, even though there is dictatorship government, most of people China are working with the same thing in mind: make their country better everyday.
Unfortunately, in Brazil we have a very fragile government and politics. Everything in Brazil is on the verge of blowing up if we are not careful, and a lot of Brazilians are more inclined to protect their personal interests than actually doing anything for the country itself.
Unless the Brazilians change their modus operandi I don’t think we can get at least on a equal foot to China.
The saddest part with that all for me is the fact the people of Brazil are one of the most hard-working and smart people I’ve ever met, despite the bad things we face everyday.
We could be as great as any nation if we are able to solve our own issues first.

不幸的是,在巴西,我们的政府和政治非常脆弱。 如果我们不小心的话,巴西的一切都处在崩溃的边缘,许多巴西人更倾向于保护自己的个人利益,而不是实际上为国家做一些事情。

Rodrigo Xavier, Intern at Machlev Smart Applications (2017-present)
China in every single aspect but the magical western democracy.
China has a problem of controlling their population, no doubt, but don’t think only them do that, most country do the same they just have different methods for that. Human rights are disrespected in most of western societies daily. Brazil still has slavery, forced child labor and forced child prostitution happening all over the country.
Most Brazilians I met who decided to live in China were generally pretty happy there and most of them aren’t thinking in come back to our country. If China is good or not, I can’t say for sure, I’ve never being there. But in comparison to Brazil? Most of the things they have are better.

Rodrigo Xavier, 在马切列夫智能应用公司实习(2017-至今)

Paul Yang, Programmer, Guitarist, Cook
Times of win of FIFA World Cup: China: 0 vs Brazil: 5
Times of qualified for final stage of FIFA World Cup: China: 1 vs Brazil: 21
So from this scale, Brazil is extremely stronger than China.

Paul Yang, 程序员,吉他手,厨师
国际足联世界杯夺冠次数:中国:0 vs 巴西:5
进入世界杯决赛阶段次数:中国:1 vs 巴西:21

Heloisa Ferreira, lives in Brazil
Thanks for A2A.
At this point in time, definitely China.
Like I said in another answer, Brazil has capacity to be a strong superpower — maybe, with luck, even stronger than China!
But it isn’t. Not now.
Corruption, economy problems, educational problems, health problems…
Even if that reality might change in four or five decades, at this moment, China is still stronger politically and economically.

Heloisa Ferreira, 住在巴西

Gordon Styles
Imagine a large company (ABC plc) having a board of Directors in the Board Room. One faction sits on one side of the table, the other faction facing. Every four years, all of the employees get to decide which half of the board gets to manage the company. Imagine that for the next four years, the faction that won the employee election has to carry out its business with the bitter ‘losers’ opposing almost every suggestion and plan the winners make.
Board meetings are just a screaming match of opposing views. The ‘losers’ do everything they can to discredit the winners in front of all of the employees. They spread lies and half-truths, preparing to retake power as soon as the next election cycle comes. Surely no company would allow such an idiotic system?

Gordon Styles

Then you have an even larger competitor, XYZ plc, who also has the same arrangement in the board room; but their management team finds common ground in seeking to undermine ABC plc. They send in spies to work at ABC, spreading misinformation, and troublemaking. They approach ABC’s employees and bribe them, trying to find out ABC’s customer list. At every opportunity, XYZ maligns ABC in the press and to the customers. Imagine how distracting that would be for ABC’s board.


Imagine also that the bankers, from whom ABC rents money; and the landowners, from whom they rent land, are endlessly putting up their fees, and over time, draining ABC of any profits it might well have made, leaving nothing for reinvestment in new equipment.
In the above performance, Brazil and Mexico were ABC’s; the USA played XYZ, and the bankers and the landowners played themselves.


China said, to hell with all that BS. We’re going to have one single cohesive board of directors, we are going to own the banks, and own all the land. Whatever profit we make, we are going to keep it all, and we are going to reinvest every penny. AND, we are not going to allow XYZ/USA to interfere in our internal business matters, and when we catch their spies, we are going to smash them.
And that is why China is leaving Brazil, Mexico and the USA in the dust.


Mohamed Iqbal , works at Swasta
China has a strict anti-corruption laws. Many have been punished for doing that crime.
China had and still have many pragmatic, sincere and patriotic leaders.Otherwise how could China became the world's second largest economy? The result of China's success are the proofs. Even Trump is jealous of China.
Brazil had many corrupted leaders like Lula,Roussef,etc. The poor are suffering and the crime rate is very high there. No one dies of hunger in China.Bolsonaro is destroying the Amazon. China is a prominent member of the Paris Treaty,while even Trump have pulled out.
Also, the Chinese are a hard working race, and this is a reason why foreign companies like to invest in China.Don’t compare China and Brazil.China is a Dragon.

Mohamed Iqbal,在斯瓦斯塔工作
中国有严格的反腐败法律。 许多人因犯了这样的罪而受到惩罚。